An Important Mathematical Oversight

The original intention for this website was to encourage public awareness of an historical medical crime, one that has remained a tightly-kept British state secret now for more than five decades. The matter is of enormous public interest, not least because the motivation behind the crime itself was that of advancing scientific research into areas that would come to provide the seminal knowledge behind much of the technological progress of the last half-century. My investigation into the matter inspired a parallel enquiry into some of the fundamental principles that underpin that scientific and technological impulse.

There are therefore two principle concerns of this website, and if there is acknowledged to be a substantive connection between them, that has inevitably to do with late 20th Century developments in science and information technologies, and more broadly with the idea of an burgeoning technocracy – the suggestion of a growing alliance between corporate technology and state power – one which might be judged to have atrophied the powers conventionally assigned to liberal-democratic institutions. This link therefore serves as a segue to emphasise the equal importance, to my mind, of what is going on in the X.cetera section of the site, so that that section should not appear, from the point of view of the other, as some kind of 'afterthought'.

X.cetera is concerned with a problem in mathematics and science to do with the way we think about numbers. As a subset of the category defined as integers, elements in the series of the natural numbers are generally held to represent quantities as their absolute, or 'integral', properties. On the page: The Limits of Rationality I have made a criticism of this standard definition of integers as indices of self-contained values, on the basis that the definition obscures the fact that the relations of proportion between integers is derived from their membership of a restrictive group of characters as defined by the decimal rational schema; and that those ratios of proportion cannot be assumed to apply to the the same values when transcribed into alternative radical bases such as binary, or octal, or hexadecimal, for instance.

This means that, while the values of individual integers so transcribed will be ostensibly equal across those alternative radices, the ratios of proportion between groups of those values will not be preserved, as these must be determined uniquely according to the range of available digits within any respective radix (0-9 in decimal, 0-7 in octal, for instance); one consequence of which of course is the variable relative frequency (or 'potentiality') of specific individual digits when compared across radices. This observation has serious consequences in terms of its implications for the logical consistency of data produced within digital information systems, as the logic of those systems generally relies upon the seamless correspondence, not only of 'integral' values when transcribed between decimal and the aforementioned radices, but ultimately upon the relations of proportion between those values.

Information Science tends to treat the translation and recording of conventional analogue information into digital format unproblematically. The digital encoding of written, spoken, or visual information is seen to have little effect on the representational content of the message. The process is taken to be neutral, faithful, transparent. The assessment of quantitative and qualitative differences at the level of the observable world retains its accuracy despite at some stage involving a reduction, at the level of machine code, to the form of a series of simple binary (or 'logical') distinctions between '1' and '0' – positive and negative. This idea relies upon a tacit assumption that there exists such a level of fine-grained logical simplicity as the basis of a hierarchy of logical relationships, and which transcends all systems of conventional analogue (or indeed sensory) representation (be they linguistic, visual, sonic, or whatever); and that therefore we may break down these systems of representation to this level – the digital level – and then re-assemble them, as it were, without corruption.

However, in the X.cetera section I am concerned to point out that the logical relationship between '1' and '0' in a binary system (which equates in quantitative terms with what we understand as their proportional relationship) is derived specifically from their membership of a uniquely defined group of digits (in the case of binary, limited to two members). It does not derive from a set of transcendent logical principles arising elsewhere and having universal applicability (a proposition that will come as a surprise to many mathematicians and information scientists alike).

It follows that the proportional relationships affecting quantitative expressions within binary, being uniquely and restrictively determined, cannot be assumed to apply (with proportional consistency) to translations of the same expressions into decimal (or into any other number radix, such as octal, or hexadecimal). By extension therefore, the logical relationships within a binary system of codes, being subject to the same restrictive determinations, cannot therefore be applied with logical consistency to conventional analogue representations of the observable world, as this would be to invest binary code with a transcendent logical potential that it simply cannot possess – they may be applied to such representations, and the results may appear to be internally consistent, but they will certainly not be logically consistent with the world of objects.

The issue of a failure of logical consistency is one that concerns the relationships between data objects – it does not concern the specific accuracy or internal content of data objects themselves (just as the variation in proportion across radices concerns the dynamic relations between integers, rather than their specific 'integral' numerical values). This means that, from a conventional scientific-positivist perspective, which generally relies for its raw data upon information derived from discrete acts of measurement, the problem will be difficult to recognise or detect (as the data might well appear to possess internal consistency). One will however experience the effects of the failure (while being rather mystified as to its causes) in the lack of a reliable correspondence between expectations derived from data analyses, and real-world events.

So that's some of what X.cetera is all about.. If you think you're 'ard enough!

RFR: Effects on Wildlife

The following links refer to several articles of recent research into the deleterious effects of environmental levels of RFR/EMR upon wildlife biosystems, as a result of the proliferation of mobile communication phone masts and cell towers across urban and rural spaces. Of particular concern are the observed effects on avian and honeybee populations. The selection is in no way exhaustive.

Balmori, A., Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife, Pathophysiology 16, 2009, pp.191-199:

Beason, R.C. and Semm P., Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus, Neuroscience Letters, 333: 175-178, 2002:

Cane, J. H. and Tepedino, V.J., Causes and extent of declines among native North American invertebrate pollinators: detection, evidence, and consequences, Conservation Ecology 5(1):1, 2001: [last accessed 30/03/2019].

Kimmel, S.; Kuhn, J.; Harst, W.; Stever, H., Electromagnetic Radiation: Influences on Honeybees, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau/Campus Landau, Germany, 2007:

Favre, D., Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping, Laboratory of Cellular Biotechnology (LBTC), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 2011:

Mouritsen, H. and Ritz, T., Magnetoreception and its use in bird navigation, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15(4): 406-414, 2005:

MOEF, Report on possible impacts of communication towers on wildlife, including birds and bees, Government of India, 2010: [last accessed 30/03/2019].

Rubin, E.; Shemesh, Y.; Cohen, M.; Elgavish, S.; Robertson, H.; Bloch, G., Molecular and phylogenetic analyses reveal mammalian-like clockwork in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and shed new light on the molecular evolution of the circadian clock, Genome Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2006:

Sharma, V.P. and Kumar, N.R., Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations, Current Science, v.98, no.10, 25 May 2010:

Sivani, S. and Sudarsanam, D., Impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell phone towers and wireless devices on biosystem and ecosystem – a review, Biology and Medicine, v.4(4), pp.202-216, 2012:

US Fish & Wildlife Service, Public Press release on briefing paper on the need for research into the cumulative impacts of communication towers on migratory birds and other wildlife in the United States, Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM), 2009: [last accessed 30/03/2019].

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